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变革中的中国绝无腐败的立足之地

2013-11-14 12:19 PM| 发布者: jinqiao66| 查看: 5036| 评论: 0

摘要: No place for corruption in changing nation
        Corruption is a problem in countries across the world, with developing countries often believed to be more prone to it, although there is no evidence to suggest this is the case.
        腐败是一个全球普遍的问题,人们习惯性认为发展中国家的腐败现象更为严重,但并没有证据证明事实就是如此。
        However, in the transition from a state-planned economy to a market economy, private enterprises inevitably have an element of corruption, which manifests itself in the subordination of business to any level of government administration, as well as the patronage of the government over business structures.
        但是,从计划经济过渡到市场经济,私人企业无可避免地会出现腐败现象,从各级政府隶属企业到承蒙政府关照的企业莫不如是。
                                      
        There are two functions that corruption possesses. The first is its negative function impeding economic development. The second, less commonly acknowledged one, is corruption plays a role of lubricant to stabilize ties between business and political authorities. At the initial stage of the transition to a market economy, the second function plays the major role, as it makes up for imperfections in the legal regime.
        腐败的作用有两种。第一,腐败阻碍经济发展;其次,也是鲜为人知的一点,腐败是稳固企业和政府机构关系的润滑剂。从计划经济向市场经济过渡之初,第二种作用起主导地位,弥补了法律制度的不足之处。
        Appropriation of corporate opportunities signifies the emergence of a unique form of mutually beneficial combination of private and state interests. But without this combination, the development of entrepreneurial initiative and free market reforms wouldn't be possible. During this period, the purpose of anti-corruption efforts is not to eradicate it, since the corruption is an integral way to boost economic activity and create a free economic area that is free from the State-planned system. Rather the aim is to keep the corruption within certain limits, as its rapid interdiction would mean elimination of entrepreneurial initiative and a return to the times before the transition begins.
        挪用公司利益意味着出现了一种私企和国企双方利益的新的特殊组合形式。如果缺乏这种组合形式,创业和自由市场改革就无从谈起。在过渡时期,腐败促进了经济繁荣、创造了不受计划经济约束的自由经济领域,在这一时期,反对腐败的目的并不是要消除腐败。当然,要把腐败控制在一定程度之内,遏制腐败意味着打击创业精神,逼迫社会倒退至计划经济时代。
        Inevitably in the course of development comes the moment when corruption reaches a certain turning point, after which its functions and its role change. When a market economy has been established, the necessity for corruption, peculiar to the transitional stage, disappears. Having fulfilled its historical role, it begins to impede development of a new social system, dragging society back to the transition phase, as corruption can only exist as an intermediary between traditional and contemporary economic cultures.
        我们绝不否认,在发展的过程中,腐败的发展也会进入到一个转折点,之后腐败的功能和角色就发生了变化。市场经济确立以后,过渡阶段对腐败的基本需求消失了。完成历史角色使命之后,腐败开始阻碍新的社会制度的发展,令社会倒退到其充当传统和现代经济文化中介的过渡阶段。
        As long as corruption exercises its originative function, society will tolerate it as a necessary or unavoidable evil so long as they benefit from rapid economic growth. However, when growth starts to slow, the awareness of social injustice will come to the fore and protests will occur. Hence, corruption will change from a factor that stabilizes relations between the state and business into a factor that destabilizes relations between the state and society.
        只要腐败一直发挥着其角色的原始功能,社会就会忍受既定程度的腐败,将之视为经济快速发展过程中不可避免的一个因素。但是,经济增速一旦放缓,人们就会意识到社会存在不公,随之进行抗议。因此,腐败的角色也从企业和政府关系的协调者变为企业和政府关系的破坏者。
        As a new economic mechanism has been created in China and can develop independently on its own, eradicating corruption is necessary to restore and raise economic efficiency and growth rates. More importantly, eradicating corruption is necessary because its negative impacts, which were previously ignored because of high growth rates, are now undermining social stability and having a detrimental effect on the moral fabric of society.
        中国已经建立了一套新的经济机制,能够实现独立自主发展,因此根除腐败是保持、提升经济效率和经济增速的基本要求。之前,由于经济高速发展,腐败的消极作用被人忽视,如今腐败已经妨碍社会稳定,对构建良好的社会道德产生了不良影响。
        The scale of corruption is high in other emerging economies, including Brazil, India and Russia, but what has attracted the world's attention to China, is the resolve the new leadership has shown in its efforts to fight corruption. It has introduced several measures to curb corruption, including tightening legislation, intensifying supervision, and strengthening the law, and as it consolidates the transformation to a new development mode and the country's modernization, the new leadership has shown it is determined to promote greater social justice. In the transition to a market economy, public servants have been able to exploit their role as facilitators for personal advantage, now the most urgent task is to deprive government bureaucracy of any improper privileges, and the leadership must back its words with action and show it is willing to tackle both the "tigers" and "flies" who violate the principle of social justice.
        其他国家,如巴西、印度和俄国等新兴经济体的腐败现象也比较严重,中国对待腐败的态度吸引了世界各国的关注,新的领导层摆出出大力反腐的姿态,已经采取多项举措惩治腐败,包括完善立法、加强监管和执法力度,这为过渡阶段的发展和中国的现代化奠定了坚实的基础,显示了新的领导层促进社会公平的决心。在向市场经济过渡时期,公务员凭借自身优势谋取一己私利,而现在,当务之急则是要清除政府的官僚作风和特权,领导层也必须言而有信,彰显出“‘苍蝇’、‘老虎’一起打”的诚意。
        The CPC with its traditions of advancing the Party style, moral, ideological and political education campaigns is already primed for the fight against corruption. But it will be impossible to eradicate it without adhering to the principle of social justice. To overcome corruption it is necessary to embrace the old and new society at the same time and change the relations between the State, society and business to suit the changing circumstances.
        中国共产党历来有加强党风建设、道德建设、思想建设和政治教育的传统,党风廉政建设活动为打击腐败做好了前期准备。但如果不以维护社会公平为原则,就不可能根除腐败现象。要想达成目标,适应新旧社会过渡阶段,调整政府、社会和企业之间的关系以适应不断变化的环境是很有必要的。
        The author is director of the Center of Political Research, the Russian Academy of Sciences.
        本文作者为俄罗斯科学院政治研究中心主任安德烈·维诺格拉多夫

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